Full Text: SPLM’s Arusha Reunification Agreement Frameworks



Arusha, Tanzania

framework signatories

Source: Nyamilepedia@2014

A)  Preamble:

Acknowledging that the current crisis in South Sudan us rooted in differences withing the SPLM leadership;

Re-affirming our commitment to the reunification of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement and agreeing to continue to engage in the process of an Intra-SPLM Dialogue in Arusha, Tanzania;

Mindful that the Arusha process is essentially separate and distinct from the IGAD mediated peace talks among South Sudan stakeholders;

Cognizing that the two process, although separate, are mutually reinforcing;

Recognizing the tragic developments that have occurred in South Sudan since the outbreak of conflict in December, 2013;

Rejecting the use of violence as a means of resolving political disputes;

Believing that a peaceful, political solution must be found to resolve the conflict;

Bearing in mind the need to bring about lasting peace to our nation through dialogue on the basis of this framework document;

Appreciating the initiative of the leadership of the SPLM and Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) for convening this Intra-SPLM Dialogue, and further expressing gratitude for the decision of the CCM to host and facilitate the Dialogue and the support of Crisis Management Initiative (CMI);

Now, therefore, agrees to be guided by this Framework as detailed below:

B)  Principles:

  1. Commitment to uphold and protect the sovereignty, independent and territorial integrity of South Sudan.
  2. Commitment to the core values of SPLM, including but not limited to peace, democracy, equality, freedom, inclusivity, social justice and unity in diversity.
  3. Commitment to dialogue as a peaceful means of conflict resolution;
  4. Commitment to reconciliation and a healing process to consolidate party unity and cohesion;
  5. Re-commitment to democratic principles and practices;
  6. Re-commitment to internal democracy especially on matters of decision making elections, succession and peaceful transfer of power;
  7. Re-commitment to transform the society by working towards the achievement of freedom, justice, equality and prosperity for all;
  8. Commitment to the institutionalization of authority, party governance and discipline;
  9. Commitment to the unity of SPLM as safeguard against fragmentation of the country along ethnic and regional fault lines.

C) Objectives:

  1. Address the root causes of the current crisis in order to expeditiously reconciles its leadership and membership to restore unity and harmony in the party;
  2. Initiate measures to stop the war, lead the government and the people of South Sudan towards peace, stability and prosperity;
  3. Re-vitalize, re-organize, strengthen and restore the SPLM to its vision, principles, political direction and core values;
  4. Promote and foster the spirit and exercise of collective leadership on transparency and accountability; and
  5. Develop mechanisms to generate resources and ensure their efficient management and to combat corruption.

D) Agenda

  1. Situation analysis
  • History and evolution of the SPLM: Self assessment and evaluation.
  • Synthesis of the problem.
  1. Experience of Liberation Movements and CCM
  • Experiences of liberation movements
  • Experiences of CCM
  • Lessons learnt
  1. The Way Forward
  • Political issues
  • Organizational issues
  • Leadership issues
  1. Reconciliation and healing in the party.
  2. Implementation Mechanisms
  3. Witnesses and Guarantors


  1. Rules of Engagement
  • Civility
  • Mutual respect
  • Honesty and frankness
  • Confidentiality
  • Listening to each other well and understanding the contexts
  • Respect the right of individuals to express themselves no matter what their points of views might be.
  • Avoid acrimonious approaches and finger pointing
  • Avoid group defense and/or group attack
  • Avoid polemics
  • Have an agreed spokesperson, whose roles it to communicate what is agreed by members
  • Unless otherwise agreed, all discussions shall be confined within this Framework
  1. Role of CCM (The Facilitator)
  • Provide venue and facilities for the intra-SPLM Dialogue
  • Coordinate with the IGAD Special Envoys the timing of the two processes
  • Update regional and international partners
  • Coordinate the process with the SPLM focal points
  • Guide the discussion with the view to allow members to reach consensus
  • Declare the opening and closing of each session
  • Set timetable of meetings in consultation with participants
  • Organize sessions to share experiences of liberation movements and CCM
  • Record and announce decisions and conclusions arising from meetings
  • CCM invites the Crisis Management initiative (CMI) to provide advisory, technical expertise, logistical support and resource mobilization in collaboration with Tanzania
  • Invite the Principals to meet at an appropriate stage in the process

The Arusha Communique: Intra-SPLM Dialogue


Oct 20, 2014(Nyamilepedia) — At the invitation of the Chairman of the sisterly party, the Chama Cha Mapinduzi(CCM), Ndugu Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, we as members of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement met in Arusha, the United Republic of Tanzania between Oct 12 – 18, 2014 to discuss and prepare a framework on the root causes of the internal crisis within the SPLM, which has plunged the country into the current civil war.

The meeting was facilitated by the Secretary General of CCM, Ndugu Abdulrahman Kinana. The participants discussed and jointly prepared the key elements of the framework for Intra-SPLM Dialogue:

  1. Preamble
  2. Principles
  3. Objectives
  4. Agenda
  5. Annexes
    1. Rules of Engagement
    2. Role of CCM (Facilitator)

The results of the lengthy and cordial discussions are summarized as followed:

  1. The parties acknowledge a collective responsibility for the crisis in South Sudan that has taken a great toll on the lives and property of our people. The Parties also acknowledge that dialogue, rules and procedures are the only means to resolve the internal differences and lack of consensus over important party issues among SPLM leaders.
  2. The parties underline the important role of the SPLM as the party that led the national liberation culminating in freedom and independence of South Sudan. The parties also underscore the fact that a divided SPLM will automatically fragment the country along ethnic lines and regional fault lines. Therefore the crisis must be urgently brought to an end by the SPLM collective leadership through genuine and honest dialogue that put the interest of the people and the nation above all.
  3. The parties commit themselves to an agenda and timelines for a follow up meeting scheduled to take place within a fortnight with the aim of expediting the process with utmost efficiency, determination and commitment.
  4. The parties recognize that the Arusha process is essentially an Intra-SPLM Dialogue and is separate and distinct from the IGAD mediated peace talks among South Sudan stakeholders. Yet the parties are fully aware that the two processes, although separate, are mutually reinforcing.
  5. The parties take this opportunity to thank Comrade Chairman of CCM, the Secretary General, the entire membership of CCM and the people of the United Republic of Tanzania for the hostility and their concern over the crisis in our country and the commitment to assist the SPLM to resolve its political and organization crisis.

The parties appreciate the willingness of the two Comrades, President Salva Kiir Mayardit and Dr. Riek Machar Teny for agreeing to this initiative and send high level delegations to the intra-SPLM Dialogue. The parties also appreciate the active participation of all the delegations in this process.

The parties register vote of thanks to the Crisis Management Initiative (CMI) for supporting this dialogue.

The Dilemma of Ethics in the Practice and Exercise of Constitutional Democracy and Human Rights in the Republic of South Sudan

By James Barnaba.

A Scholar of the Practice in International Development Management and Social Policy.

UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon (L) walks with South Sudan's President Salva Kiir (R) in Juba during his attempt to push for ceasefire between the two warring parties (Photo: file)

UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon (L) walks with South Sudan’s President Salva Kiir (R) in Juba during his attempt to push for ceasefire between the two warring parties (Photo: file)


Oct 20, 2014(Nyamilepedia) — This paper attempts to offer some analysis of the dilemma of ethics in the practice and exercise of constitutional democracy and human rights in the republic of South Sudan. The dilemma of ethics in the practice and exercise of constitutional democracy and human rights is a real challenge in the context of South Sudan where the government and the citizens are seen as two separate societal institutions with limited recognition by government that the people are sovereign. The paper will raise questions on how ethics is practiced and exercised in constitutional democracy and human rights. The paper argues from John Rawls two principles on the new theory of Justice. John Rawls principles are 1. Set of liberty and access to the liberties 2. Fair equality of opportunities. Along these two principles a specific analysis will also be made focusing on Rawl’s sub-principles of wealth, social good, mobility, bases of self-respect, and power. This paper will assess whether the exercise of constitutional democracy have provided capabilities for wealth, social good, mobility, bases of self-respect, and power.

Constitutional democracy is known to refer to the authority of the majority as limited by legal and institutional means so that the rights of individuals and minorities are respected. This is the form of democracy practiced in Germany, Israel, Japan, the United States, and other countries. Center for Civic Education (2014) Constitutional democracy takes such characteristics as government of, by, and for the people. It is government of a community in which all citizens, rather than favored individuals or groups, have the right and opportunity to participate. In a democracy, the people are sovereign. The people are the ultimate source of authority. The powers of government are limited by law and a written or unwritten constitution which those in power obey. In South Sudan the Constitutional democracy is rooted in its Interim Constitution of 2011 as a modern and largely progressive basic law upon which to build the new state. It incorporates a Bill of Rights, requires the government to promote democratic principles and political pluralism, and establishes the principles of decentralization and devolution of power to improve development and end poverty. Democracy Reporting International (2011). It also provides for an independent judiciary and a range of state commissions that could, in the future, serve as an institutional check against any abuse of state power.

Ethics enhance the practice of governance to consider fundamental values of constitutional democracy which reflects the paramount concern of human dignity and the worth and value of each individual. Center for Civic Education (2014). Ethics also motivates the proper protection and promotion by government of basic and fundamental rights such as right to life, right to liberty, economic and social rights and right to property. Ethical conduct by governing politicians involves more than respect for the law and adherence to rules governing conflicts of interest. Colin (2006), it displays fidelity to a democratic ethos.

The Dilemma of Ethics in the Practice and Exercise of Constitutional Democracy and Human Rights

It had come to my attention that a young nation like Republic of South Sudan should be made aware about the philosophy of ethics in driving constitutional democracy and that ethics should influence it so that democratic governance is possible to bring about protection and promotion of human rights and state development. If constitutional democracy brings about government in which power and civic responsibility are exercised by all citizens, directly or through their freely elected representatives then its practice and exercise need to be done in an ethical manner where elected representatives morally opening up a space for freedom that makes South Sudan a free nation.

A profound meaning of ethics is supposed to help humanity to understand how leaders and citizens practices and exercise constitutional democracy and human rights as the case may be in in the Republic of South Sudan. Antonakis, Cianciolo, & Sternberg, (2004, p.302) The exercises of rights such as freedom from arbitrary arrest, detention and torture whether one is an opponent of the ruling political party, an ethnic minority, or even a common criminal, is a basic human right. Political party members who compete for political position should be given fair and equality of opportunity and the practice and exercise of constitutional democracy to be upheld as it promoted human rights.

Increasing awareness and changing societal values have been linked to the public’s interest in ethics management Maesschalck, (2004/5). Accordingly, citizens have become more assertive and demanding toward leaders in the public-sector showing less tolerance for leaders’ mistakes, shortcomings, and structural challenges. The public’s interest does not seem to be prominent in the minds of many leaders in South Sudan where one sees corruption becoming more of a norm. There is the dishonest exploitation of power for private or political gain as nepotism and favoritism by officials including government Ministers often leads to relatives or friends being favored in appointments for jobs in government or ambassadorial functions in diplomatic missions abroad, with no regard to merits and qualifications expected of candidates for filling such roles.

Rawls’ theory provides a framework that ethic is not about corruption and nepotism but it is all about fair equality of opportunities for citizens. Rawls’(1996) Ordinary people of South Sudan feel that they are facing a new oppressor by their own people and they feel that they have no voice in the structure of society and distribution of wealth in South Sudan, they find themselves fearing rule by powerful and wealth elites who do not really care about them but themselves(elite). Jwothab (2011). Hence the dilemma posed by the situation in South Sudan on ethics, challenges my understanding that ethics and governance have often been thought of as mutually-reinforcing concepts which together would combine to limit the practice of corruption and nepotism. That is to say, knowledge and expertise would have to be used with certain standards defining professional ethics such as, for instance, avoiding corruption in the delivery of public services. Otherwise with unfettered culture of nepotism and corruption in government, public service delivery is deprived of an essential precondition of government leaders claim to legitimacy. As Hegel (1967: 191) supremely put it.

The practice and exercise of constitutional democracy and human rights by both elected leaders and the citizenry within the last few years have become very complicated given the evidence of human rights abuses included politically motivated abductions by ethnic groups; harsh prison conditions; arbitrary arrest and detention, including prolonged pretrial detention; and an inefficient and corrupt judiciary. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for (2011). Further government has restricted freedoms of privacy, speech, press, assembly, and association. These concerns have made the citizens to fear and they could not have the power to demand social good from their government.

Rawls’ theory urges us to conceive of society “as a fair system of cooperation over time, from one generation to the next. He says that “the relationship of citizenship with Government should be within the basic structure of society, a structure we enter only by birth and exit only by death” the ethical theory seems not to capture well with the reality in South Sudan where there are arbitrary or unlawful deprivations of Life leading to extreme poverty and loss of life as reported that more than 17,613 people in South Sudan were killed under the watch of a government supposedly known to be democratic. BNFA (2014). There were several reports that the government or its agents committed arbitrary or unlawful killings. Such actions are not ethical and do not go in line with Rawls argument that promote the greatest sum of happiness by laws and governments.

According to Rawls principle of liberty and access to the liberties means that citizens that lives in a particular states are supposed to enjoy their rights. Governments provide a space for them to be able to create wealth, social good, have mobility and that there must be a base of self-respect for both government and the citizenry. There is also a belief that practice and exercise of constitutional democracy will bring about these value. But under a supposedly a constitutional democracy, there is evidence of thousands of citizens experiencing displacement, with the numbers reported to be 803,200 within South Sudan and 254,000 that fled to neighboring countries. BBC report (March 29, 2014), with recorded increase in the number of abuses and harassment in the country. It is not ethical for citizens to be abused and harassed by their own government when it should be expected to exercise and promote self-respect and human dignity.

The exercise of the bases of self-respect as stated in Rawls principle is that government and the citizen should both have respect to each other as human dignity is a key. Rawls (2001). This principle seems have also been promoted in the South Sudan transitional constitution which recognizes the value of self-respect. However, the exercises of this self-respect by government and security forces are not considered to be adequate by many in the country. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices (2011). The way the government and security forces treat political opponents, journalists, and human rights workers provide a cause for grave concerns. Those that ask the government to promote economic development as a good policy are often seen as the opposition to government and as such they found themselves tortured, beaten, and harassed. If that is the behavior of a government perceived to be democratic then it begs the question of how will the citizen participate in a meaningful development and creation of wealth when conducive conditions do not exist or upheld by government.

Drawing from Rawl’s (1971) idea that there is need for distribution of rights, liberties, opportunities I would agree by suggesting that this is important as all population in South Sudan should have the opportunity to work, earn a living, and support their families. Children deserve special protection because they are the future of the nation and they should receive at least an elementary education, proper nutrition, and healthcare. Maintaining human rights, citizens in any free society need to be vigilant. Citizen responsibility through a variety of participatory activities to ensure that government remains accountable to the people. The family of free nations is committed to work toward protection of human rights.

I would point out that, the practice and exercise of constitutional democracy and human rights in the Republic of South Sudan ethically should translate to a real democratic system, in which the government exists to serve the people but citizens also must agree to abide by the rules and obligation by which they are governed. Democracies grant many freedoms to their citizens including the freedom to dissent and criticize the government. The effort of government should create wealth, social good, mobility, bases of self-respect and power to citizens. In South Sudan this still depended on political and military expediency which often overrides the attempts to establish an effective and functioning civil administration and institutions. In additions Among the basic human rights that any democratic government must protect are freedom of speech and expression; freedom of religion and belief; due process and equal protection under the law; and freedom to organize, speak out, dissent, and participate fully in the public life of their society.

Further in addressing the moral and ethical obligations of public administrators, Moore (1976) states that public-sector obligations arise from three different realms which includes: (1) respecting the processes that legitimate the actions of public officials, (2) serving the public interest, and (3) treating colleagues and subordinates with respect, honesty, and fairness. The practice and exercise of constitutional democracy is supposed to promote peace and security which then makes liberty and access to the liberties enjoyable by the state but when leaders such as the ones in South Sudan do not give peace a chance it could be difficult for citizens to participate in meaningful development, raising the ethical dilemma as to what extent do the public administrators would be tolerated in falling short of their obligations to address and fulfill commitments to serve the public interest and also that ethical argument of Rawls that there is need to promote the greatest sum of happiness by laws, governments and economics.

Pursuit of a personal good life or tribal good life at the expense of others is an invitation to disaster, conflict, crisis and violence by those that have been denied the equitable share of national resources, privileges and obligations. Where emphasis is placed upon personal or group benefits, the society suffers polarized negative perceptions toward each other. Turaki (2002:59). When such morality and Ethics arises among key civil servants that are holding public offices, their focus will not be on building a good nation, such as putting infrastructure, standard health facilities, good schools, electricity and clean water to the citizens, but parochial. Many modern Africans, educated in Western arts and sciences have met with challenges of reconciling the concept of service to society or community with misplaced values of shared wealth and the processes for wealth creation and distribution to the wider society, they often fail on how to organize good and better environment where they can stay and live at peace in the community and using public resources for public good instead of for personal and private benefit to family and friends.

The principle of majority rule and the protection of individual and minority rights are profitable in democratic society. Majority rule is a means for organizing government and deciding public issues, it is not another road to oppression. Just as no self- appointed group has the right to oppress others, so no majority even in a democracy, should take away the basic rights and freedoms of a minority group or individuals. Minority whether as a result of ethnic background, religious belief, geographic location, income level, or simply as the losers in elections or political debate enjoy guaranteed basic human rights that no government, and no majority, elected or not, should remove.

Can the practice and exercise of constitutional democracy bring about fair opportunities which can be accessed and afforded by everyone? Can fairness and opportunities make everyone develop their capacities and talents which will make individuals compete for social positions. I would argue that this is possible only when the majority rule and minority rights are able to have positive moral governance value to society and also as indicate by Rawls principle that no self- appointed group has the right to oppress others. New Sudan Council of Churches (2002). But where there is lack of political will there is also slow progress in sustainable development, good governance, and capacity building. Limited and blurred separation of powers between the military, government and civil society due to lack of clear policy and legal frameworks and limited government policy is often bypassed in favor of more opportunistic practices or those driven by necessity.


South Sudan is rich in natural resources: large swaths of the country are arable, there are untapped mineral resources; oil reserves are estimated to be the largest in Africa after those of Angola and Nigeria. With a very small population of just over10 million people and a land mass the size of France, South Sudan can feed and care for its people and afford them a descent life free from war and hunger. Ethics should make the constitutional governance of South Sudan to translate to liberty and access to the liberties and fair equality of opportunities. What the people of South Sudan need now is shelter, hospitals, schools, roads and cleans water. These services have hardly existed for over the last sixty years in which the Sudan has been at war with itself.


Antonakis, J. Cianciolo, A. T., & Sternberg R. J. (2004). The nature of leadership. London: Sage.

Colin M. Macleod (2006), Ethical Political Conduct and Fidelity to the Democratic Ethos, in Denis Saint-Martin, Fred Thompson (ed.) Public Ethics and Governance: Standards and Practices in Comparative Perspective (Research in Public Policy Analysis and Management, Volume 14) Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp.227 – 242

Hegel, G. (1967) Philosophv of Right, transl. T.M. Knox. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

John Rawls (2001) Justice as Fairness: A Restatement (Harvard University Press) abbreviated JF

John Rawls, (1971) A Theory of Justice (Harvard University Press,); abbreviated

Jwothab (2011) The Roots of Corruption in South Sudan: http://pachodo.org/latest-news-articles/pachodo-english-articles/2185-the-roots-of-corruption-in-south-sudan

Killed in South Sudan violence, BNFA (2014) http://nyamile.com/2014/04/08/executive-17613-killed-in-south-sudan-violence-bnfa/

Maesschalck, J. (2004/5). Approaches to ethics management in the public sector: A proposed extension of the compliance-integrity continuum Public Integrity.

Moore, M. H. (1976). Realms of obligation and virtue. In Joel L. Fleishman, Lance Liebman, and Mark H. Moore (eds.), Public Duties: The Moral Obligations of Government Officials . Cambridge, Ma. Harvard University Press.

New Sudan Council of Churches (2002) Inside Sudan: The Story of the People-to-People Peacemaking in Southern Sudan Nairobi.

Turaki (2002:59) How pursuit of good life dominates ethical conscience in Africa


Author: James B. A Scholar of  the Practice in International Development Management and Social Policy. For further comments, contact the author at jamesbob@brandeis.edu

South South International Advocacy for Human Rights

For immediate Release

Nuer ethnic gentleman with traditional scrafications on his head and numerous marks as a passage to manhood(Photo: File|Nyamilepedia)

Nuer ethnic gentleman with traditional scrafications on his head and numerous marks as a passage to manhood(Photo: File|Nyamilepedia)

October 20, 2014(Nyamilepedia) — South International Advocacy for Human Rights USA condemns in strongest terms possible the targeting of ethnic Nuer by South Sudan Government

SSIAHR has closely been watching South Sudan oblique strategy device as tool for ethnic cleansing against community of South Sudan. To date our field team in South Sudan has documented four disturbing incidents against members of ethnic Nuer after Juba massacre in following towns:

On October 10, 2014 a UNMISS engineer Jang Deang who is a member of ethnic Nuer was abducted  by the government security personnel while repairing a generator at Movcon UNMISS office at Malakal Airport (Upper Nile state) at 11am and since then is where about is not known.

On October 16, 2014, Mark Diang who works for WFP was rounded up by security personnel in at the present of UN personnel who scouted him to Malakal Airport (Upper Nile State) to board plane to Juba. Local people in Malakal have said that those arrested him are under direct command of General Johnson Oliny. Mr. Diang a member of ethnic Nuer.

On August 5, 2014 Gabriel Yien Gach a South Sudanese Norwegian Aid Worker was picked up in NPA car in Maban county of Upper Nile state and was killed in cool blood by government security personnel. Mr. Gach is a member of ethnic Nuer.

On April 17, 2014 government soldiers in disguise wearing civilian clothes forcefully entered UN Compound in Bor Town -South Sudan (Jonglei State) massacred hundred innocent children and women of ethnic Nuer inside that compound besides March 5, 2014 Juba massacred of uncounted number unarmed civilians and soldiers of Nuer ethnic Group.

With all these track records, SSIAHR is appealing to International Community and all people of good will to help stop these clandestine activities pursues by Kiir’s regime against Nuer ethnic in South Sudan and we strongly demand the release of these two young men. Crimes of this nature committed under the watchful eye of the United Nation are intended to taint the cemented sanctity of the UN and are at the same time in defiant to the UN charter of 1949 Geneva Convention that makes such practice a crime against humanity and punishable by law.
Peter Gatkuoth wadar kuel
SSIAHR Executive Director
Email: peterkuel@yahoo.com

Open Letter to south Sudan youth

By Dak Buoth Riek Gaaq,

South Sudan Nuer community meeting in Ethiopia raising hands to speak during the meeting(Photo: supplied)

South Sudan Nuer community meeting in Ethiopia raising hands to speak during the meeting(Photo: supplied)

20th October, 2014.(Nyamilepedia) — ‘‘The penalty that men pay for not being interested in politics is to be governed by men worse than themselves’’ At my teens, I was bloodily driven out of my ancestral home for a sin I never committed nor abetted, neither did I know the people who did what they penalized us for.

In spite of my innocence and those at my category, they never spared us from all devilish acts that they did at a time. Thus, we had to flee for our dear lives and ultimately sought a refugee status as aliens in north western Kenya.

The people that I left behind in that area where I was forcefully ejected has since days of creation to date never witness what a Murrum road look like or communication network service nor a sparks of modern electricity and other basic necessities. Certainly, my fellow global citizens who may heard me in Seoul, Brussels, Havana and nearby Gatundu Kenya will presume that I am day dreaming, for they might not belief that there are still human beings who lack the aforementioned necessities in the 21st century.

Since I adopted an alien status, had it not been for the selfless immortal sacrifices of some big hearted individual (s) who have helped me climbed this mileage perhaps this except wouldn’t have been available for the readers. All these memoirs bring me to conclusion that irrespective of how inactive and indifference you are probably with an intention to beautify or distance yourself from the evils currently orchestrated by the architects of the socio-economic and political affairs in our country; you will always inhale and exhale the particles of their action either directly or indirectly.

These aforesaid issues; among other philosophical verdicts prompted me to stand up and persistently asks; are our lives, dignity and indispensable peace limited to individuals? Do we exist on a mercy of those proclaimed political deities?

It is in the public domain that South Sudan with its abundant natural resources, fertile soil, rich and diverse cultures, now it tops the list as the poorest country on the planet earth; with a features ranging from poor infrastructure; high maternity, low mortality and high illiteracy rates; little technological know-how; citizenry succumbing to curable diseases that have long been eliminated in other part of the world; mothers and kids sheltered not only in shanties but also under and on the trees like birds. They eat like chickens and with chickens, and they clothed on rags.The Italians adage, ’that Rome was not built in one day’’ shouldn’t be an excuse at all for what we can do right for our country because we have resources and celebrated population that can be fed, treated and schooled. To tell you the truth, the hopes and patience preserved all along are now waning and fading.

The governing political party (SPLM) isn’t showing a sign of regret for its misgivings; instead it is continuing to be rocked by rampant embezzlement of whopping state and donors funds: widespread corruption and failure to erase Khartoum’s enduring legacy of abject poverty have soon sown a social and political discontent and has now install one of the most unequal nation on earth; its immunity and exception from accountability for its ills, aided by ineffective state organs invented to abetted impunity; pervasive absence of the rule of law; Police brutality and extra judicial killings are always crashing the old wounds and therefore lowering our national pride and patriotism.

All these constituted the current political turmoil which we are unaware how soon it will ease. as matter of fact, according to the recent surveys conducted by renowned international institutions; they irrefutably documented that ‘‘the destruction of properties and widespread civilians displacement wittingly orchestrated by the political actors of the ongoing crisis is something unimaginable, incomprehensible, unbelievable, regrettable ever incurred since the first revolutionary bullet in 1955.

Optimistically, the guns will soon be muted diplomatically; it’s just matter of time. Afterward, the new page will be open for accountabilities and the rule of law, and in my little legal knowledge, the act of commission and omission are normally weight using the same kilogram and when they are subjected to the wrath of justice system; only few will escape the jaws and the long arms of the law among the two antagonists SPLM sections.

There is what is call ‘‘duty to foresee’’ and this must be apply later if at all justice will be unravel comprehensively and broadly. Voltaire said, every man is guilty of all the goods that he didn’t do right. This duty to foresee empathized on the role of a leader to detect, consult, react and defense reasonably et cetera when the governed are faced by eminent danger.

Therefore even the leaders of the disgruntle group will be put to task, because the facts remains that this crisis didn’t just happened accidentally as few of you may think, it appeared as a well-planned scheme, doctored and skillfully unleashed to meet its intended purpose. As such, few among the disgruntle group who have held powerful positions in government will be question to explain what they had seen, and the action they had taken at their disposal to prevent this ongoing crisis from happening, failure to which, that will amount to act of omission.

Temporarily, for us to slightly reduce the bulkiness of this crimes in our hearts and souls, we ought to be more proactive while maintaining high sense of sobriety and not in illusion and emotion as portrayed by many; because If you opts for the latter, you will appear like the people you’re accusing. The legal maxim holds that, ’he who comes into equity must come with clean hands’’ as such, we should not satisfy our thirst for freedom by dinking from a cup of hatred, dishonesty, cowardice, tribalism and impunity for there is no crime of association.

Try to pose a self-fitting question, by asking where is the rain started beating us? When you interrogated yourself this question, analyze it objectively not subjectively, you will have a picture of relieve and justice that you will pursue confidently.

in 2005, though the death of the Party leader Dr. Garang befall the highly triumphant nation, optimisms remained up in sky because the people then could still noticed and envisioned the resilience among the remaining party stalwarts. In Africa they say, when a hero died, people don’t weep; instead you just pick his spear and run with it. Hence, they said lets bury Dr. Garang quickly and decently so that we could restart the journey. Therefore, the question then as to whether they would drive the party philosophy in unity was something totally not in doubt.

From the onset, the fuels and engine that accelerated our Bus which carry us to July 9th 2011 was purely a red blood cell. By the time we reached that day and everybody was thirsty and dehydrating on that day; everybody had to queue to get that which we lack, the road, the food and security. The arithmetic was very clear and simple, just like counting you fingers; it was anticipated for instance that, when Chukudum shall got road this year, the other year shall be Pathiel and Aweil and so no and forth.

Uncontrollably, the ruling SPLM which had once earned glowing tribute and was placed at pedestal both locally and continentally is now cracking and is tearing itself apart completely with no chance of recycling .With the far it has reached in its self-destruction and the mistrust it has earned among the civil population, I doubt whether the Chama Cha Mampinduzi, the liberation revolutionary socialist party of Tanzania will get some peels to rescue it from its internal intricacies;

I heard the two principals have left their respective enclaves on 19th October 2014 to attend that advisory conference in Arusha Tanzania. My uncertainty whether Chama Cha Mampinduzi will manage to fence SPLM’S the broken fence isn’t based on their capability to do but rather on the SPLM lack of commitment to peace.

Painfully, the nation that it fought for is now hanging on a pendulum; and the string on which it is hanging, is loosening its strength considerably and it may either fall in the Nile River for crocodiles to swallow or in Eastern Africa as permanent refugees with no hope for home return soon. Right now, on this day and hour 20th October 2014; 7:12 pm, the opinions and faces of the south Sudanese people portrayed mourning and desperate feelings among the once jubilant community. The cotton and milky mood that came with independent on the 9th July.

2011 has rapidly changed and has now been transformed into a gloomy coated with red wicked ethnic vendetta.

Akin to Khartoum ‘s successive regimes which then purported that we are all Sudanese citizens, yet we don’t get the share of the national cake, did we felt proud just by mere political allegiance? I think not. It is indisputable that we had inherited what we run away from and ‘‘history is now repeating itself’’ the writings are on the wall for every south Sudanese citizen to see.

The fact that we got our country’s political independent with its own capital is immaterial without tangible substance that offer real independent, like it is said, ‘‘independent has failed south Sudan, because the majority are still mired in poverty in the face of burgeoning wealth on the other side, ‘‘that independent should mean more than political freedom, it need to translate to the improvement of lives not disenchantment or disenfranchisement in the society as it is the case with us.

Argumentatively, can we say, the SPLM leadership has truly lose vision or the problems facing it are just challenges of infancy, meaning they can still occur though its other party or leader governing rather than SPLM? I think both points can hold water if debated rationally.

Summarily, Dr. Kwame NKruma still right, let his soul rest in eternal peace, he said, ‘‘seek ye first the political freedom, and the rest shall be added unto you; as such, as young people of this potential land, we need to bolster more efforts now than ever before so that we can be really independent from disease , poverty and ignorance among menaces that have crippled us from ascertaining our aspirations.

It’s our utmost responsibility to go out there and make thing at least improve. Let’s refrain from insults on social media but mediate on how we can reunite ourselves and work out our problems as one indivisible society. We must inserted extra efforts to give visionary leadership a chance to rescue us from this leadership confusion and thereafter propel our country to the next level where other countries are in Africa and beyond.

We must rethink on how to dodge the past African mistakes that have dragged them behind over decades. Going by the Africa Union Youth charter crafted and enacted in Banjul Gambia; every young person have roles to execute towards his family and society, the State, and the international community.

That youth have the duty to partake fully in citizenship duties including voting, decision making and governance; that they shall engage in peer-to-peer education to promote youth development in areas such as literacy. Violence prevention and peace building;

That they shall contribute to the promotion of the economic development of States Parties and Africa by placing their physical and intellectual abilities at its service; That they shall work towards a society free violence, Coercion, crime, degradation, exploitation and intimidation;

That they shall promote tolerance, respect for others regardless of age, race, ethnicity, color, gender, ability, religion, status or political affiliation; That they shall defend democracy, the rule of law and all human rights and fundamental freedoms;

Finally, youth shall embrace and sustain a culture of voluntarism and human rights protection as well as participation in civil society activities; Promote patriotism towards and unity and cohesion of Africa;

Partly, this opinion is written in dedication to Africa‘s literary icon Late Prof. Ali Masrui who had his final rest yesterday in Mombasa Kenya……

In his honor, I advised you my fellow youth to shun proudness and arrogance; for if we poses such traits, we shall be unlearn and uninformed because we will refused to be advised and constructively criticize, so on and so forth……..

Happy Mashujaa Day today in Nairobi…..Happy Heroes and Heroines Day, long live your spirit, Honorable. Marcus Garvey.

I rest my case.

The writer is student in Nairobi Kenya; he can be reach for comments via eligodakb@yahoo.com

Ebola was first detected in Sudan, 1976 (Southerner Sudan)

By Delong Majak,



There are potentials that Ebola may strike South Suda(Source: WHO, HPA, CDC)

Oct 20, 2014(Nyamilepedia) — The case of Ebola was first detected in Sudan in 1976 the then, Southerner Sudan particularly western Equatoria. We do not wish Ebola any more in south Sudan. A large outbreak of haemorrhagic fever (subsequently named Ebola haemorrhagic fever) occurred in southern Sudan between June and November 1976. There was a total of 284 cases; 67 in the source town of Nzara, 213 in Maridi, 3 in Tembura, and 1 in Juba. The outbreak in Nzara appears to have originated in the workers of a cotton factory by that time but so many means were put in place to help out people who were affected by Ebola in 1976 by the Government of Khartoum regime.

The disease later on at some points in 1976 in Maridi, Ebola was amplified by transmission in a large, active hospital where many health workers and doctors were advised by Sudan/Khartoum regime to carry out a thoroughly treatment of patients in the hospitals to avoid spreading of the disease in most parts of the country. WHO- World Health Organization compiled a report regarding the Ebola cases.

The transmission of the disease required close contact with an acute case and was usually associated with the act of nursing a patient. The incubation period was between 7 and 14 days. Although the link was not well established, by that time it has expectedly appears that Nzara could have been the source of infection for a similar outbreak in the Bumba Zone of Zaire. Therefore; we should pray harder for Ebola not to come back in South Sudan, our innocent people are dying just because of mere malaria; what of a EBOLA. GOD has so many ways of protecting helpless societies on the earth.

The cabinets of south Sudan’s government has made a ridiculous decision trying to bans handshakes in south Sudan, that can’t be the solution of Ebola. The government in particular; ministry of health is the very concerned ministry to come up with programs like creating awareness and Ebola sensitization in all parts of the country instead of taking such a decision. The innocent civilians in the rural areas, urban centers, IDPs and refugees need awareness about the disease (EBOLA signs and symptoms) and how it can be prevent and control, banning handshakes is not an immediate mean.

Almighty GOD is there for helpless south Sudanese, especially those in rural areas and urban centers, IDPs and Refugees. Nothing worse than what we are going through in South Sudan at the moment, so many lives have been lost. No more obstacles shall come in south Sudan until peace is back in the country where there shall be a government which can facilitates its citizens from all levels. This research was done with some justifiable findings regarding the case study of EBOLA in Sudan and South Sudan in 1976 after 4 years of singing Addis agreement in Ethiopia by Joseph Lagu, For God and for my BELOVE people.

Prominent writer is a typical south Sudanese and can be reached at delonymajak@gmail.com


BY Peter Kleto,

Dr. Riek Machar's SPLM-IO delegation, posting for a picture during consultation with Kenyan president in Nairobi Kenya(Photo: Nyamilepedia)

Dr. Riek Machar’s SPLM-IO delegation, posting for a picture during consultation with Kenyan president in Nairobi Kenya(Photo: Nyamilepedia)

October 19, 2014(Nyamilepedia) — As noted in the meeting by the Chairman of SPLM in opposition, Dr. Riek Machar Teny, during his consultation with the Kenyan president, His Excellency Uhuru Kenyatta, on October 18, 2014, the peace talks have made significant progress.

Though slow, the Leader of SPLM in opposition, Dr. Machar narrates that the unresolved issues which are considered to be contentious in the talks are the system of governance, federalism and leadership structure.

It is worth mentioning that the SPLM in Opposition leader, Dr. Riek Machar, has made it clear to IGAD that he is fine with not taking part in the upcoming transitional government and waits to take part in the election once the interim period subsides. In this respect, if Salva Kiir leads the transitional government during the interim period, Dr. Machar warns he should not participate in the upcoming election or else if he wish to do so, he must step down and gives someone else a chance to reconcile the populations and prepares the country for the election.

The first proposal was for the rebel side to choose their candidate for the post of Prime Minister’s, however, the opposition argue that the Prime Minister should be the head of Government and Security like in any other federal states in the world. The government delegation objects the proposal and instead demands that Salva Kiir should head the government and security.

Despite that the federal system of governance has been agreed upon on paper by the parties, the content and when it should be implemented remains controversial. In addition, leadership structure is another sticking point, however, some suggest the composition should be based on the percentage of popularity of each party in the country.

It is also recommended by the IGAD and agreed by the stakeholders that the civil society organizations should appoint their representatives to take part in the interim government, which would last for 30 months.

The interim government will prepare a transitional constitution based on federal system of governance, review the existing bills and change them to reflect the documents agreed by the parties in Addis ababa and Bahir Dar; and finally prepare the country for the election.

For genuine peace to be achieved, the followings remain to be decided:

  1. The government should decide whether president Salva Kiir will participate in the government of National Unity and not participate in the election at the end of the interim period, or;
  2. The two leaders must agree to step aside for peace to return and wait for the elections.

After Machar made his decision, the ball remains on the government’s court. Participation of both leaders in the interim government prove difficult as the two leaders want the executive powers to lead the government and security.

Hoping that the invitation by the Tanzanians’ ruling party, Chama Cha Mapinduzi, the SPLM leaders may possibly find solutions to reunify the party. The latest testimonies from the first group are promising and hopes remain high that sharing of party experiences will motivate and encourage Salva Kiir to compromise in order to end this conflict.

Dr. Machar has arrived in Arusha to attend the session that begins Monday and Salva Kiir is expected to join the talks.

The author, Peter Kleto, can be reached at peterkleto@gmail.com