THE QUEST FOR TRANSFORMATION OF WARFARE PHILOSOPHIES AND RULE OF ENGAGEMENT IN SOUTH SUDAN
By Mading Lual,
June 11, 2017(Nyamilepedia) —— When you critically look at the intensity and climax of the unending civil strife, once can be unsurpassed depict the skirmish as the most deadly, primitive and atrocious civil strife in the twenty first century, where countless innocent lives, properties loss and grave human rights violations were committed and still being commits against innocent citizens of the republic of south Sudan and the bluff is that, all those are happening at the watchful eyes of the regional and international powers .
This civil strife has triggered an adequate amount of destruction of properties, livelihood of struggling civil population and unnecessary of voluminous losses to the innocent lives for the first time in the history of Sudan since its independence from the British colony for the last 61 years and there are extremely lethal indicators and with the continuation of this senseless tribal motivated skirmish without proper rules of engagement and no respect to citizens’ rights , additional innocent lives , properties and livelihood of the people will be lost , majority of the south Sudanese populace will be forced to internally displacement camps or refugees settlements to the neighboring countries in search for safety and livelihood and the country will be potentially No Man Land of the twenty first century due to manmade disasters and countless number of people are losing faith on the future of their lovely country and its leadership , it will even be extremely arduous or impossible for the region and the international community to rescue this youngest nation from no heading toward Congo direction at their sentry .
The latest rapid technical assessment obviously divulged that, the splinted parties to the conflict have resorted to hateful messages and hurtful propaganda aiming toward inciting the ordinary and primitive citizens largely in the rural settlements to implement their tribal agenda in order to encourage communal hostilities on behalf of their political leadership.
The government policies and strategies to end this conflict through military means is encouraging the elites to maintain their old tribal propaganda and tricks within the dinka society to fight and protect their regime using tribal ideologies in order to win the support from the majority Dinka community at the national , regional and international levels.
The rebel policies and strategies are aiming to change the dinka led regimes by mobilizing and inciting all non dinka community against the dinka innocent citizens by using tribal based militias to achieve their political agenda. All those tricks and propaganda proved to be not yielding any positive outcome, toward attaining peaceful political settlement to the unending civil strife in the country.
The government forces are not nonpartisans army and in most cases they are drive not by political and national agenda but only by their tribal and loyalty to individual warlords within the SPLA general headquarters and can best be portray as tribal militias with very limited focus and vision .
The government forces in most cases views at the non dinka civilians, soldiers, officials and even constitutional post holders as rebel irrespective of their political affiliation or support to the regimes politically or militarily. The government forces are not viewing at the non dinka civilians as their citizens whom they are mandated by the constitution to protect instead views at them as their enemies and potential military targets.
The rebel forces military setup is also on tribal or regional grounds, the rebel forces are viewing at the government’s forces as invasion dinka tribes, all the communities resorted to the formation and arming of tribal militias to protect their properties, livelihood and their communities from the dinka forces. Majorities of non dinka society are not viewing at the government forces as national army and this created physiological fear among the non dinka citizens nationwide as they usually views at the government forces as their common enemies. This perception has forced majority of the population to flee to rebel control areas or to refugee’s settlement in the neighboring countries out fear for dear lives.
The fact findings in both government and rebel control areas are summarized as following:-
The Juba regime views at the rebel forces as the imminent threat to the Dinka community instead to the nation.
The dinka community views at the rebel forces as tribal coalition trying to overthrow their regimes by forces.
The Juba regime succeed in mobilizing the dinka community against the other tribes using the inciting speeches and propaganda to gain political and military support
The dinka communities feel very unsafe in the biggest part of the country due to their tribal identity
The dinka believe that their future is not clear without the political powers in their hands and they are compel to fight till the last man to protect their power and themselves against the coalition of the minority tribes
The rebel views at all the dinka including the innocent civilians as their primary enemies
The rebel utilized the government poor policies to incites and mobilize other minorities tribes against the dinka community instead against the regime in Juba.
All tribes fear their future and lives under the dinka led government in the whole country
Majority of the tribes’ fear the dinka are reintroducing colonialism by forces and opted to form their own popular defense militias to resist the dinka regime invasion at all cost.
The rebel branded the government corruption, tribalism, nepotism and other malpractices as the dinka created virus.
The communities in the rebel held areas and other non dinka areas preferred to move to the refugees’ camps or IDPs protection sites out of fear from the government forces as they branded the government forces as the dinka militias.
The latest rapid technical assessment in Equatoria and shilluk (collo ) areas denoted , that all civilians lives in high fear in the government control areas than in the rebel areas despite the fact that , government soldiers has changed the rules of engagement for the past 7 months but still civilian views at the government soldiers as the dinka militias invasion to their areas and in most cases opted for fleeing to bushes, IDPS camps and refugees camp instead of seeking refuge in the major cities under the government forces control .
The rapid technical assessment also signified that 90% of the non dinka government officials working in Juba are directly or indirectly supporting the rebel forces and encourage their fellows’ tribesmen to continue on army resistance against the regime forces to prevent the Dinkanization of the country. The majority of the people interviewed within the government areas noticeably stated that, there is no functional government and viable institutions in the Republic of south Sudan and in most cases end up supporting and encouraging the army resistance against the ethnocentric system in Juba.
The rapid technical assessment also signified that majority of people are in dire need for peace but still prefer the continuation of army resistance as long as the national identity still at the stake and in most cases believe that , for genuine peace to prevail , there is urgent need for general reforms and overhauling of the security sectors , constitutional reviews and amendments , inclusive political process , creating conducive environment for refugees and IDPs to return to their places of origin in dignify manner , establishment tribunal or hybrid courts , reconciliation , justice and restoration and reform on financial sectors etc.
Some interviewees also suggested that, President Salva Kiir and Dr Riek Machar should retired from politics, give peace chances and handover the political and military leadership to some of their trusted junior politicians and they should just task with roles of elders and patriots to reconcile the war torn community and to rebuild the destroyed social fabric among the people of south Sudan and they will be accord special status for rescuing the country in this critical time.
Majority recommended that, there is an urgent need for the parties to conflict to encourage, apply and observes the rules of engagement in the battle areas and to protect the citizens irrespective of their tribal affiliation
The parties to conflict should encourage and promote the dignify treatment of the prisoners of war to rebuild professional army in the country and to embrace the diversity of the people.
The parties to conflict most change their war propaganda and ideologies from tribal extremism to the nationalism to provide space for peaceful settlement and promote post conflict confident building measures .
The parties to conflict should always try their best to put the civilian population as their primary duty to protect from any form of harm at all cost irrespective of their tribal affiliation.
The parties to the conflict should refrain from scorch earth policies and work to shift the conflict from tribal to political dimension.
My personal views on this topics is that, the open-ended skirmish is purely internal political crisis and power struggle within the SPLM-party and the facts is that, There was no any tangible evidence to indicates that, there was tribal conflict between the tribes and no connection between the conflict and tribes . The south Sudan citizens are exposed to this inhumane and harsh living condition due the poor leadership within the SPLM party. Both President Salva Kiir and Dr Riek Machar has been working together for period of nine years and many interviewees , afraid that , both of them did nothing significant to the ordinary populations in the Nuer and the Dinka communities who are today dying to protect Kiir power and support Riek to takeover power.
It believes that, its awful policy and strategy of the SPLM leadership both in the government and in opposition to promote tribalism to in order to shift this national political crisis to tribal conflicts in order to gain popular support from their respective tribes.
The people who are dying from both sides of the conflict are all innocents and the people of south Sudan need to think twice and to say enough is enough and start to work for the future of this country instead of their tribal and two men power interests. The region and international powers has moral obligation and responsibilities to exert more pressure to the parties to conflict and forces them to accept peaceful settlement to this senseless and deadly tribal conflict to salvage this young nation and its innocent population from total disintegration into tribal areas led by warlords.
The writer is Master Researchers and activist and can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org